In a rapidly changing world, the way we approach marketing has transformed significantly. Gone are the days of selfish mass marketing tactics, replaced by a new approach that emphasizes empathy and service. Marketing is no longer a battle or a war; it is a generous act of helping others solve their problems and make a positive impact on the culture. In this blog post, we will delve into the key principles that define this new paradigm and explore why embracing them can lead to success and fulfillment in your marketing efforts.
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Spreading Your Ideas and Making an Impact
One of the primary goals of marketing is to spread your ideas and make the impact you seek. However, this can only be achieved through a genuine desire to serve others. By understanding and addressing the unique problems your audience faces, you can offer solutions that resonate and empower individuals to overcome challenges. Marketing becomes an opportunity to facilitate positive change, both at an individual level and within the broader culture.
The Lock and the Key Analogy
Imagine a lock and a key. It wouldn’t make sense to create a key first and then wander around in search of a lock to open. The most productive approach is to identify a lock—a specific audience or target market—and then fashion a key—a product or service that perfectly fits their needs. Rather than trying to find customers for your offerings, it is far more effective to create products and services explicitly designed for the customers you seek to serve. This approach saves time, energy, and resources, and allows for a deeper understanding of your audience’s pain points and desires.
Rejecting Selfishness, Embracing Generosity
True marketing success lies in generosity, not selfishness. The best marketing efforts are built on the foundation of helping others become who they aspire to be. Craft honest stories that resonate with your audience, showcasing the value your offerings can provide. By offering genuine solutions and opportunities for individuals to solve their problems and move forward, you build trust and create lasting connections. In contrast, the hype, scams, and pressure-driven marketing tactics thrive on selfishness and often fall short in the long run.
Stepping Away from the Status Quo
To truly embrace this new paradigm, it is essential to break free from the ineffective and draining practices that have become commonplace. Step off the social media merry-go-round that spins faster and faster but leads nowhere. Leave behind the hustle and interruption tactics that push people away. Cease the spamming and pretending that you’re welcome. Instead, focus on creating exceptional products and experiences that go beyond average, providing real value to your target audience. Stop begging people to become your clients and let your offerings speak for themselves. Charge a fair price for your work without feeling guilty, knowing that it reflects the value you provide. Abandon the search for shortcuts and commit to a long-term, sustainable path that yields genuine results.
5 Pillars of Effective Marketing
1) Invest in Value and Storytelling
The first step is to create something of value—a product, service, or idea—that is worth making and worth telling a story about. This value should be rooted in solving a problem or meeting a need in a unique and meaningful way. By investing in a compelling story that resonates with your audience, you lay the foundation for building connections and engaging their attention.
2) Design for a Specific Audience
Once you have a valuable offering and a captivating story, the next step is to design and build it in a way that caters to a specific group of people. Identify a niche or a tiny subset of the market that will benefit most from your solution. By focusing on this smallest viable market, you can create tailored experiences and address their specific desires and dreams. Remember, it’s not about appealing to everyone, but about deeply connecting with those who truly care.
3) Craft a Narrative that Matches
To effectively engage your target audience, you need to tell a story that aligns with their built-in narratives and dreams. Understand the hopes, aspirations, and challenges of your chosen market and shape your messaging to resonate with their unique worldview. By doing so, you create a sense of belonging and draw them into your narrative, igniting their interest and curiosity.
4) Spread the Word
With a compelling story and a targeted audience in mind, it’s time to spread the word. This step is where many marketers get excited, as it involves sharing your message through various channels and mediums. Utilize marketing strategies, such as content creation, social media, advertising, and public relations, to reach your audience and generate awareness. However, remember that effective marketing involves more than just shouting and hustling—it requires thoughtful, strategic communication that adds value to the lives of your audience.
5) Show Up and Build Trust
The final step, often overlooked, is the ongoing commitment to show up consistently, generously, and with a genuine desire to make a positive change. It’s about leading, organizing, and building confidence in the transformation you seek to bring. By continuously engaging with your audience, providing value, and earning their trust over time, you establish a strong foundation for long-term success. This step involves regul
Connecting Emotions to Marketing: Going Beyond the Drill Bit
Each person has a unique story, a narrative that shapes their perception of the world. As marketers, understanding these narratives and connecting them to our offerings is key to successful engagement. In this section, we’ll explore the concept of storytelling in marketing and how it goes far beyond the surface-level desires of customers. We’ll delve into the idea that people don’t want a product or service; they want the emotions and benefits that come with it.
The Quarter-Inch Drill Bit Analogy
Harvard marketing professor Theodore Levitt once said, “People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill bit, they want a quarter-inch hole.” This statement emphasizes that customers are not solely interested in the features of a product, but rather the benefits it provides. However, the story doesn’t end there. People don’t just want a hole; they want what comes after—a shelf on the wall. It’s about the feeling of satisfaction, organization, and pride that accompanies the end result.
Beyond the Shelf: Uncovering Desired Emotions
Digging deeper, we realize that it’s not only about the shelf. Customers seek the emotions tied to the outcome. For some, it’s the sense of accomplishment from completing a DIY project. Others may seek the admiration they receive from a spouse, the peace of mind that comes with an organized space, or the status they gain from showcasing their intellect through books on the shelf. The key is to understand and address the desired emotions associated with the end result.
Unveiling the True Desires
People don’t want the specific product or service; they want what it will do for them and how it will make them feel. While there may be countless emotions to choose from, most marketers aim to deliver similar feelings through different means, stories, and offerings. Whether it’s a sense of belonging, connection, peace of mind, or status, fulfilling these emotional needs is what truly resonates with customers. By understanding the desired emotions, marketers can craft experiences that meet those desires.
Going Beyond Tactics: Focus on Outcomes
It’s important to remember that the product or service is merely a means to achieve the desired emotions. As marketers, our focus should be on the outcomes, not just the tactics. By answering the questions of “Who’s it for?” and “What’s it for?” we can guide our decision-making process. When we prioritize understanding our customers’ narratives and connecting with their emotions, we deliver more meaningful experiences.
Embracing Change: The Path to Meaningful Impact
As individuals, we all have a desire to make a difference in the world. Whether it’s in education, industries, or societal norms, our actions shape the change we seek. However, navigating this path can be challenging. In this section, we will explore the concept of embracing change and the importance of being specific in our goals. We’ll discuss how understanding our target audience and focusing on a smaller viable market can lead to meaningful impact and growth. Let’s dive in!
Mirage 1: The Temptation of Grandiose Change
When envisioning the change we seek, it’s natural to be captivated by grand ideas that can revolutionize industries or transform the world. However, such aspirations can sometimes become mirages, shimmering with unrealistic expectations. Instead of fixating on these mirages, we must ground ourselves in reality and focus on achievable milestones. By setting tangible goals, we can make progress towards meaningful change and avoid being overwhelmed by the illusion of unattainable ambitions.
Mirage 2: Overcoming Resistance to Change
One of the challenges we face when embracing change is the resistance that arises from our current circumstances. We may find ourselves attempting to fit our desired change into the existing structures we’re familiar with. However, this approach can create a mirage that stifles genuine transformation. To break free from this mirage, we must start by understanding whom we are trying to change.
Mirage to Oasis: Defining the Target Audience
Change cannot be universal; it must be specific to have a lasting impact. By identifying our target audience, we can transform the mirage into an oasis of genuine change. Instead of solely considering demographics, we should delve into psychographics—the thoughts, beliefs, and desires of our intended audience. This deeper understanding allows us to tailor our offerings and solutions to meet their unique needs. Through empathetic connection, we can create meaningful change that resonates with our audience’s aspirations.
Forcing Focus: Embracing the Smallest Viable Market
In our pursuit of change, the mirage of the mass market may lure us with promises of widespread impact. However, this mirage often leads to diluted efforts and compromises. Instead, we should focus on the Smallest Viable Market—the essential group of individuals who will benefit most from our offerings. By serving this niche market with excellence, we can create a ripple effect that transcends the mirage and fuels substantial growth.
Respecting Boundaries: It’s Not for Everyone
Acknowledging that our work is not for everyone is an act of humility and respect. Embracing this truth shatters the mirage of universal appeal and allows us to concentrate our efforts on those who resonate with our vision. By prioritizing the needs and desires of our specific audience, we foster genuine connections and build trust. It’s about delivering on our promise to the people who have chosen to embark on the journey of transformation with us.
The Genuine Impact Promise
Crafting a genuine impact promise is the cornerstone of our transformative journey. It involves aligning our values, beliefs, and offerings with the aspirations of our target audience. By clearly articulating the benefit they can expect from engaging with our work, we create a promise that resonates on a profound level. It’s a commitment to guide, inspire, and empower our audience to achieve their desired outcomes.
Empathy in Marketing: Understanding and Serving Your Audience
Marketing is not just about promoting products or services; it’s about connecting with people on a deeper level. To truly resonate with your audience, you need to understand their beliefs, desires, and the noise that fills their minds. In this section, we will explore the power of empathy in marketing and how it influences the choices people make. We’ll discuss the importance of positioning your offerings based on your audience’s needs, and the value of recognizing that different individuals prioritize different attributes. Let’s dive into the world of empathetic marketing!
Empathy and Choice
When it comes to decision-making, people don’t believe what you believe, and they don’t know what you want. Each person carries their own perspectives, biases, and desires. However, there are common threads that connect us all. Everyone has a yearning to make things better, to feel secure, and to find meaning in their choices. By tapping into these shared human experiences, marketers can create connections and influence decisions.
Positioning with Purpose
To position your product or service effectively, you must begin by identifying an audience worth serving. Consider the different attributes that matter to your target market, such as speed, price, performance, ingredients, sustainability, or safety. By choosing two key axes to define your offering, you can create a unique positioning that aligns with your audience’s values. Remember, it’s not about appealing to everyone; it’s about serving the needs and desires of your specific audience.
The Power of Value
In every purchase or investment, there is an inherent exchange of value. People pay for products or services because they believe they are worth more than the price they pay. It’s crucial to understand that if a prospect chooses not to purchase, it simply means the offering is not the right fit for them at that moment. Recognizing this allows you to focus on serving those who find value in what you offer.
Understanding What Matters
Let’s consider the example of a car. For a teenager, their first car represents independence, freedom, and a shift in status and perception. However, for their parents, it symbolizes an opportunity to offer freedom with responsibility and initiate conversations about control, safety, and decisions. Understanding the diverse perspectives and desired outcomes helps marketers tailor their messaging and offerings to resonate with different audience segments.
The Role of Empathy
Empathy lies at the heart of effective marketing. By putting yourself in your audience’s shoes, you can anticipate their needs, desires, and concerns. When you approach marketing with empathy, you build trust and connection. You demonstrate that you understand and care about what truly matters to them.
Putting Problems First: The Power of Emotional Labor in Making a Difference
As individuals driven to create positive change, our purpose lies in making a difference for those we serve. It’s not about personal gain, but rather the impact we can have on others. To go beyond mere commodities and make real change, we must recognize that the true transformation happens at an emotional level. In this section, we will explore the challenges of the commodity mindset and the importance of emotional labor in delivering authentic and impactful service.
The Struggle Against Commodity Mindset
When what you offer is perceived as a commodity, it becomes challenging to justify higher prices. Customers have access to extensive information and options, and if they perceive your offering as similar to others, they may prioritize finding the most cost-effective solution. Breaking free from the commodity mindset is essential for achieving sustainable success.
Seeking Authenticity in a Crowded Market
While it is important to be true to ourselves and act authentically, it is equally crucial to recognize that authenticity alone may not be enough to differentiate our offerings. While being authentic means being genuine and true to our values, it does not necessarily guarantee capturing the attention of our target audience. Balancing authenticity with strategies that set us apart becomes crucial in a competitive landscape.
Embracing Emotional Labor to Deliver Value
In order to stand out and provide exceptional value, we must embrace the concept of emotional labor. This involves going beyond our own preferences and investing the effort to understand and empathize with our target audience. By doing so, we can craft offerings that truly address their needs and desires, creating a meaningful connection that transcends the commodity trap.
Unleashing Creativity and Innovation
To break free from the limitations of commoditization, we must foster a mindset of creativity and innovation. By continuously exploring new ideas and approaches, we can develop unique value propositions that set us apart from the competition. This requires a willingness to challenge the status quo and think outside the box, offering something that goes beyond what customers can find elsewhere.
Differentiating Through Exceptional Service
Exceptional service becomes a powerful tool in distinguishing ourselves from commoditized offerings. By providing personalized experiences, going the extra mile, and genuinely caring about the success and satisfaction of our customers, we can build long-lasting relationships that transcend transactional exchanges. Exceptional service becomes a defining factor that sets us apart in a crowded marketplace.
Understanding Customer Desires: Unveiling the Key to Successful Marketing
In the world of marketing, knowing what people truly want is often more elusive than it seems. If you were to ask individuals directly, their answers might not reveal groundbreaking insights. It becomes our responsibility as marketers to observe, understand people’s dreams, and create transactions that can deliver the desired emotional experience. In this section, we will explore three common confusions that can hinder our understanding of customer desires and discuss strategies for unraveling their true wants.
Confusion #1: Wants vs. Needs
A common confusion arises when we conflate wants and needs. While we need basic essentials like air, water, health, and shelter, almost everything else falls into the realm of wants. It is crucial to recognize this distinction and approach wants as desires rather than necessities. By understanding the difference, we can more effectively address and fulfill the wants of our customers.
Confusion #2: Limited Imagination
People tend to be acutely aware of their wants, which they often perceive as needs. However, they are not always adept at inventing new solutions to satisfy these wants. Familiarity holds a powerful sway, and individuals may prefer familiar solutions even if they are not entirely effective. As marketers, we must look beyond the status quo and develop innovative ways to address customer wants, providing fresh and compelling solutions.
Confusion #3: Diverse Desires
Assuming that everyone wants the same thing is a common mistake. The reality is that people have unique desires and preferences. Some crave novelty and change, while others seek stability and continuity. By recognizing and embracing the diversity of desires, we can tailor our offerings to specific segments and provide customized experiences that resonate with each group.
Shifting the Focus
To truly understand what people want, it is essential to shift our focus away from our own capabilities, products, or tactics. Instead, we should begin with the dreams, fears, and emotional states of our customers. By understanding the change they seek to make and the underlying emotions they wish to experience, we can craft offerings that align with their desires.
Identifying the Core Feeling
Nobody truly needs our products or services. Take, for example, the notion of selling white leather wallets. While customers might decide they want a white leather wallet, it is crucial to go beyond the physical item itself. The true desire lies in the feeling that pulling out that wallet evokes, whether it’s a sense of luxury, confidence, or status. Identifying and understanding that core feeling should be the first step before investing time and resources into creating a product.
Your Own Desires
As marketers, it’s important to reflect on our own desires. We often share common aspirations such as wanting respect, success, independence, and fulfillment. However, the specifics may vary greatly. While certain material possessions or job titles might not be universally important, our underlying motivations align more closely. Recognizing these shared desires allows us to connect with our audience on a deeper level.
The Power of Testing
In the pursuit of understanding customer desires, we must acknowledge that we don’t have all the answers. Embracing a mindset of constant testing becomes crucial. Rather than relying on assumptions, take the cheap and fun option of testing ideas, being open to making mistakes, and iteratively refining our approaches until we get closer to what resonates with our target audience.
Understanding Customer Choices: Embracing Empathy and Growth
As marketers, it’s essential to delve into the reasons why people choose not to engage with our brand. To reach a higher level of empathy, we must be willing to ask the tough questions and understand why individuals opt for our competitors instead. By gaining insights into their decision-making process, we can develop a deeper respect for their choices and enhance our ability to create meaningful connections with our target audience.
The Right Decision for Them
To truly understand customer choices, we need to acknowledge that those who don’t choose us are not necessarily wrong. In fact, they may have valid reasons for selecting a competitor over our brand. It is through this perspective that we can begin to explore the dynamics of their decision-making process and uncover valuable insights.
Empathy goes beyond comprehending why people choose us; it extends to understanding and respecting why they don’t choose us. By taking a step back and acknowledging that our offerings might not align with their specific needs or preferences, we open ourselves up to a greater level of empathy and a deeper understanding of our customers.
When we find the empathy to recognize that our product or service isn’t the right fit for someone, we gain a newfound freedom. This freedom allows us to focus on work that truly matters, rather than trying to convince or persuade individuals who aren’t the ideal fit. By acknowledging when our offerings aren’t a match, we can redirect potential customers to competitors who may better suit their needs, fostering goodwill and demonstrating integrity.
The Power of Choice
In the realm of marketing, recognizing that our brand may not be the perfect fit for everyone is essential. Just as individuals have diverse preferences and requirements, businesses too have unique value propositions. By accepting that not everyone will choose us, we can concentrate on delivering exceptional value to the customers who resonate with our offerings, ensuring that we make a meaningful impact in their lives.
The Power of Belonging: Understanding the Desire to Fit In
As humans, our actions and purchasing decisions are strongly influenced by our innate desire to fit in. We navigate our lives not only according to our individual narratives but also in alignment with the tribes we associate with – the people who share our values, interests, and aspirations. This inherent need to affiliate drives many of our choices and shapes the stories we tell ourselves.
The Internal Narrative
Consider the decisions we make on a daily basis. Whether it’s buying a high-end stroller, choosing to shop at a local farmers market, or selecting a particular fashion style, our choices are driven by our internal narratives. We evaluate options based on what aligns with our personal beliefs and preferences. These narratives are deeply intertwined with the desire to belong and the groups we aspire to be a part of.
The Power of Tribes
Belonging to a tribe, a community of like-minded individuals, holds great significance. We seek out those who share our values, tastes, and aspirations because being part of such a group provides a sense of identity, acceptance, and validation. Our desire to fit in leads us to make decisions that align with the norms and expectations of our chosen tribe – the “people like us.”
Exploring Identity Through Affiliation
Our choices reflect not only our individual desires but also our quest for affiliation. We consciously or subconsciously ask ourselves which groups we want to belong to and which identities we want to embody. Whether it’s joining a fitness community, supporting a specific cause, or adopting a particular lifestyle, our decisions are driven by a deep-rooted desire to be accepted and valued by our chosen tribe.
While the desire to fit in is a powerful driver, it’s essential to balance it with authenticity. We mustn’t lose sight of our true selves in the pursuit of conformity. Authenticity allows us to align with tribes that genuinely resonate with our values and aspirations, rather than simply conforming for the sake of belonging. By embracing our authentic selves, we attract the right tribes and forge meaningful connections.
Understanding Brand Marketing vs Direct Marketing: Choosing the Right Approach
When it comes to marketing, two distinct approaches exist: brand marketing and direct marketing. While both have their merits, understanding their differences and knowing when to apply each strategy is essential for achieving marketing success. Let’s explore the characteristics and considerations of these two approaches.
Direct Marketing: Action-Oriented and Measurable
Direct marketing is driven by action. It focuses on tangible results and emphasizes measurable outcomes. When engaging in direct marketing, it’s crucial to measure every aspect of your campaigns. By tracking metrics such as cost per click, conversion rates, and customer acquisition, you can gain valuable insights into the effectiveness of your efforts. Direct marketing is ideal for immediate response and generating direct sales.
Brand Marketing: Culturally-Oriented and Immeasurable
In contrast, brand marketing operates on a cultural level. It aims to create a meaningful connection between your brand and your target audience. Brand marketing campaigns are less easily quantifiable, as they prioritize long-term brand building, reputation, and emotional resonance. Cultivating a strong brand image requires patience and a focus on engaging with the culture. While brand marketing may be challenging to measure directly, its impact is evident through customer loyalty, brand recognition, and the intangible perception of your brand in the marketplace.
Goals, Strategies & Tactics
Tactics are the tangible actions and techniques employed in marketing campaigns. They can be listed and easily understood. On the other hand, strategy is the overarching plan that guides your tactics. It’s the umbrella under which your tactics operate, supporting your desired goals and outcomes. While tactics can be replicated by competitors, a well-crafted strategy remains unique to your brand.
The Power of Online Advertising
Online advertising offers unparalleled precision and reach. With advanced targeting capabilities, you can precisely target specific demographics and even psychographics. It allows for instant visibility, reaching your audience within moments. Furthermore, online advertising provides extensive measurement and analytics tools, enabling you to track the effectiveness of your campaigns.
The Duality of Brand Marketing and Direct Marketing
Brand marketing creates magic by establishing an emotional connection with your audience, while direct marketing focuses on generating immediate responses and driving sales. It’s crucial to remember that direct marketing must be measurable to have a tangible impact. Conversely, brand marketing demands patience, consistency, and a commitment to engaging with the culture. If you lack the resources or willingness to invest in long-term brand building, direct marketing may be the more suitable approach for your business.
The Importance of Branding in SEO
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is often seen as a technical exercise. However, its true value lies in building a brand that people actively search for. By developing products or services that resonate deeply with your target audience, you create a demand that leads individuals to specifically search for your brand. The goal is not to rank high for generic terms but to become the preferred choice when people are actively seeking your brand.
Pricing: A Critical Marketing Decision
Setting the right price for your product or service is a vital marketing decision. It goes beyond mere numbers and directly impacts how your offering is perceived by customers. Let’s delve into the importance of pricing and its implications in marketing.
The Patek Philippe Watch Paradox
A luxury watch like the Patek Phillippe may seem exorbitantly priced for its utility value. However, it serves a more profound purpose – as a symbol, a statement of status and self-esteem. The high price tag becomes a silver or red painted flag on our wrist, an expression of our aspirations. Pricing can communicate more than just the cost; it conveys a story and creates a perception.
The Danger of Being the Cheapest
Seeking to be the cheapest option in the market can be detrimental to your brand. While low prices may attract customers in the short term, it signals a lack of investment in innovation and change. Being the cheapest does not promise transformation or improvement; it merely offers the same product or service at a lower cost. Lowering prices can erode trust and diminish the perceived value of your offering.
The Power of Free
Free has a remarkable allure. It possesses a unique psychological impact that sets it apart from any other price point. Free ideas or products have a higher likelihood of spreading rapidly, as they eliminate the barrier of monetary exchange. Examples such as Facebook or free radio broadcasts demonstrate the immense reach and impact of the free model. However, it’s crucial to strike a balance between free and paid offerings.
The Marriage of Free and Expensive
The key to navigating this pricing paradox lies in combining the power of free ideas with valuable, expensive expressions of those ideas. Offering free content, ideas, or experiences allows for wider dissemination and engagement. On the other hand, charging a premium for products or services that provide a significant value proposition enables businesses to sustainably reinvest in improving their offerings and marketing efforts.
The pursuit of perfection can be paralyzing. The belief that perfection is attainable closes doors and stifles progress. Instead, striving for better opens up possibilities for growth and improvement. It invites us to constantly seek ways to enhance our products, services, and marketing strategies. Embracing the concept of “good enough” allows for engagement, learning, and the opportunity to make promises and earn customer trust.
The Power of Help and Connection
Offering and seeking help is at the core of human connection. When we extend help, we display generosity, while asking for help demonstrates trust in others. Without connection and collaboration, it becomes challenging to make meaningful improvements. By fostering genuine connections and creating value through marketing, we contribute positively to the world.
Marketing to Make a Difference
Marketing is not about self-promotion; it is about offering value and making a positive impact. If you fail to market your offering effectively, you are depriving others of the value you can provide. Marketing is a way to share knowledge, engage with others, and create opportunities for growth and transformation. By embracing marketing, you are offering more than you are taking – a chance for others to learn, engage, and benefit from what you have to offer.
In conclusion, effective marketing goes beyond traditional tactics and strategies. It requires a deep understanding of human behavior, emotions, and desires. By embracing empathy, focusing on the needs and dreams of your target audience, and aligning your marketing efforts with their aspirations, you can create a powerful connection that goes beyond transactional exchanges.
Pricing, as a vital marketing decision, holds the power to shape perceptions and communicate value. It is essential to strike a balance between offering competitive prices and delivering a compelling value proposition. Being the cheapest may attract customers momentarily, but it often fails to inspire trust and loyalty. Instead, aim to provide a unique and valuable experience that justifies the price, creating a sense of exclusivity and differentiation.
Moreover, marketing is not just about self-promotion; it is about creating genuine connections, offering help, and making a positive impact. By understanding the desires and needs of your target audience, you can tailor your marketing messages and experiences to resonate deeply with them. This approach fosters trust, engagement, and long-term relationships.
Remember, marketing is a journey of continuous improvement. Embrace imperfection, seek opportunities to make things better, and be open to learning from your customers and competitors. By combining the power of free ideas and valuable offerings, you can reach a wider audience while still maintaining sustainability.
In the end, marketing is about more than making a sale. It’s about making a difference in the lives of those you seek to serve. By approaching marketing with authenticity, empathy, and a genuine desire to help others, you can create lasting impact, build a strong brand, and forge meaningful connections that extend beyond monetary transactions. So, embrace the power of marketing, share your value with the world, and contribute to the positive change you aspire to make.